Forgings refer to products manufactured by the process of shaping metal utilizing compressive forces. The compressive forces used are generally delivered via pressing, pounding, or squeezing under great pressure. Although there are many different kinds of forging processes available, they can be grouped into three main classes:
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OPEN DIE FORGING
Open die forging is performed between flat dies with no precut profiles in the dies. Movement of the work piece is the key to this method. Larger parts over 200,000 lbs. and 80 feet in length can be hammered or pressed into shape this way.
Open-die forging can produce forgings from a few pounds up to more than 150 tons. Called open-die because the metal is not confined laterally by impression dies during forging, this process progressively works the starting stock into the desired shape, most commonly between flat-faced dies. In practice, open-die forging comprises many process variations, permitting an extremely broad range of shapes and sizes to be produced. In fact, when design criteria dictate optimum structural integrity for a huge metal component, the sheer size capability of open-die forging makes it the clear process choice over non-forging alternatives. At the high end of the size range, open-die forgings are limited only by the size of the starting stock, namely, the largest ingot that can be cast. Practically all forgeable ferrous and non-ferrous alloys can be open-die forged, including some exotic materials like age-hardening superalloys and corrosion-resistant refractory alloys.
SEAMLESS ROLLED RING FORGING
Seamless rolled ring forging is typically performed by punching a hole in a thick, round piece of metal (creating a donut shape), and then rolling and squeezing (or in some cases, pounding) the donut into a thin ring. Ring diameters can be anywhere from a few inches to 30 feet. Rings forged by the seamless ring rolling process can weigh < 1 lb up to 350,000 lbs., while O.D.’s range from just a few inches up to 30-ft. in diameter. Performance-wise, there is no equal for forged, circular-cross-section rings used in energy generation, mining, aerospace, off-highway equipment and other critical applications.
High tangential strength and ductility make forged rings well-suited for torque- and pressure-resistant components, such as gears, engine bearings for aircraft, wheel bearings, couplings, rotor spacers, sealed discs and cases, flanges, pressure vessels and valve bodies. Materials include not only carbon and alloy steels, but also non-ferrous alloys of aluminum, copper and titanium, as well as nickel-base superalloys.
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Forged parts vary in size, shape and sophistication and
can be produced using nearly any metal. The most common
metals used include carbon, alloy, tool and stainless steels
as well as aluminum, titanium, high-temperature superalloys,
brass and copper.
High strength-to-weight ratios and structural reliability favorably influence performance, range and payload capabilities in the aerospace industry. Made of ferrous, non-ferrous and special alloy materials, forgings are widely used in jets and piston-engine planes, helicopters, engine mounts, military aircraft and spacecraft. Some examples of where a forging's versatility of size, shape and properties make it an ideal component include bulkheads, wing roots and spars, hinges, engine mounts, brackets, beams, shafts, landing gear cylinders and struts, wheels, brake carriers and discs and arresting hooks. In jet turbine engines, iron-base, nickel-base and cobalt-base superalloys are forged into components such as discs, blades, buckets, couplings, manifolds, rings, chambers and shafts.
|TECHNICAL DATA LINKS|
|Aluminum 2014A Composition Spec|
|Aluminum 2024A Composition Spec|
|Aluminum 2618A Composition Spec|
|Aluminum 6061A Composition Spec|
|Aluminum 7049A Composition Spec|
|Aluminum 7050A Composition Spec|
|Aluminum 7150 Composition Spec|
|Titanium Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo-0.1Si; Duplex Annealed|
|Carpenter AerMet 100, 900°F Aged|
|Carpenter AerMet 100, 875°F Aged|
|Haynes® 230® alloy, as cast vacuum investment casting, tested at RT|
|Haynes® 230® alloy, as cast vacuum investment casting, tested at 538°C (1000°F)|
|Haynes® 230® alloy, as cast vacuum investment casting, tested at 649°C (1200°F)|
|Haynes® 230® alloy, as cast vacuum investment casting, tested at 760°C (1400°F)|
|Haynes® 230® alloy, as cast vacuum investment casting, tested at 871°C (1600°F)|
|Haynes® 230® alloy, as cast vacuum investment casting, tested at 982°C|
|Haynes® 230® alloy, as cast vacuum investment casting, tested at 1093°C|
|Haynes® 25 alloy, vacuum investment castings, solution treated, tested at RT|
|Haynes® 25 alloy, vacuum investment castings, solution treated, tested at 425°C (800°F)|
|Haynes® 25 alloy, vacuum investment castings, solution treated, tested at 650°C (1200°F)|
|Haynes® 25 alloy, vacuum investment castings, solution treated, tested at 760°C (1400°F)|
|Haynes® 25 alloy, vacuum investment castings, solution treated, tested at 870°C (1600°F)|
|Haynes® 25 alloy, vacuum investment castings, solution treated, tested at 980°C (1800°F)|
|Special Metals MONEL™ Alloy 400|
|Special Metals MONEL™ Alloy K-500|
|Allegheny Ludlum Grade 1 Titanium (UNS R50250)|
|Allegheny Ludlum Grade 2 Titanium (UNS R50400)|
|Allegheny Ludlum Grade 3 Titanium (UNS R50550)|
|Allegheny Ludlum Grade 4 Titanium (UNS R50700)|
|Allegheny Ludlum Titanium 6Al-4V ELI (UNS R56401)|
|MetalTek WASPALOY® Centri-Vac Nickel Cobalt Based Alloy|
|TIMETAL® 10-2-3 Titanium Alloy (Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al), Aged Billet/Bar per ASTM 4984|
|TIMETAL® 10-2-3 Titanium Alloy (Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al), Aged Billet/Bar per ASTM 4986|
|TIMETAL® 10-2-3 Titanium Alloy (Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al), Aged Billet/Bar per ASTM 4987|
|TIMETAL® 35A CP Titanium (ASTM Grade 1)|
|TIMETAL® 50A CP Titanium (ASTM Grade 2)|
|TIMETAL® 6-2-4-6 Titanium Alloy (Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-6Mo), Beta Forged + STA|
|TIMETAL® 62S Titanium Alloy (Ti-6Al-2Fe-0.1Si); Alpha-Beta Forged, RA|
|TIMETAL® 62S Titanium Alloy (Ti-6Al-2Fe-0.1Si); Beta Forged|
|TIMETAL® 65A CP Titanium (ASTM Grade 3)|
|TIMETAL® 75A CP Titanium (ASTM Grade 4)|